Shadows are formed by illuminating objects. Shadows are different everywhere on earth. If you look closely at the shadows under the electric light, you will find that the middle of the shadows is very dark and the surrounding areas are slightly shallow. The particularly dark part in the middle of the shadow is called the umbra, and the dark part around it is called the penumbra. These phenomena are closely related to the linear propagation of light. If you put a cylindrical tea tube on the table and light a candle next to it, the tea tube will cast a clear shadow. If two candles are lit beside the tea tube, two overlapping shadows will be formed. The overlapping part of the two shadows is completely dark, which is the umbra; beside the umbra, there is only one candle that can shine, which is the penumbra of half-light and half-darkness. If three or even four candles are lit, the umbra part will gradually shrink and the penumbra part will have many layers. It is also true that objects can produce shadows composed of umbra and penumbra under electric light. Obviously, the larger the area of the luminous object, the smaller the umbra. If we light a circle of candles around the tea tube, the shadow will disappear completely and the penumbra will be invisible. Scientists have made shadow-less lamps for surgery based on these principles. It combines a large area of light source by arranging the lamp with high luminous intensity into a circle on the lamp disc. In this way, the light can be illuminated to the operating table from different angles, which ensures that the operative field of vision has sufficient brightness, and at the same time does not produce obvious umbra, so it is called shadow-less lamp.
Shadowless lamp mobile phone uses this technology to concentrate the lamp tube technology of an operating room into a small mobile phone.
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